Antonio S. Williams

Associate Professor
Kinesiology

Sport Management Doctoral Coordinator
Kinesiology

aw22@indiana.edu
(812) 855-3061
PH 112J

Education
  • Indiana University, Ph.D., 2010
  • Indiana University, M.S., 2007
  • South Carolina State University, B.S., 2005
Courses
  • SPH-M 418 SPORT MARKETING
  • SPH-M 514 SPORT MARKETING & SPONSORSHIP
  • SPH-K 550 SPORT BRAND & PRODUCT MANAGEMENT
  • SPH-K 550 SPORT STRATEGY & APPLICATION CULMINATING EXP
  • SPH-K 550 FITNESS MARKETING & MANAGEMENT
  • SPH-M 510 ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY IN SPORT
  • SPH-K 693 INDEPENDENT STUDY & RESEARCH
  • SPH-K 690 DOCTORAL SEMINAR IN SPORT MARKETING
Background
  • Member, American Council on Exercise. Scientific Advisory Panel San Diego, CA (2015 – Present)
  • Brand Strategist, The Houstonian Club & Spa Houston, TX (2013 – 2014) 
    Serve as marketing researcher and health club brand consultant.
  • Brand Strategist, Indianapolis Colts Indianapolis, IN (2012 – 2014)
    Serve as personal brand consultant to rookies and provide lectures.
  • Marketing Research Consultant, Indianapolis Colts Indianapolis, IN (2012 – 2013) 
    Conduct marketing research for brand extensions and aid in implementation.
  • Brand Strategist, Indiana University Recreational Sports Bloomington, IN (2012 – 2013) 
    Conduct marketing research and aid in implementation.
  • Project Manager, NFL: 2012 Super Bowl Host Committee Indianapolis, IN (2012) 
    Oversaw team of volunteers for the Riley Hospital Super Baskets of Hope.
  • Member, American Council on Exercise. Industry Advisory Panel San Diego, CA (2011 – 2015)
  • Program Manager, NFL: 2012 Super Bowl Host Committee Indianapolis, IN (2011) 
    Oversaw team of volunteers for the NFL 1st and Green Program.
  • Member, NFL: 2012 Super Bowl Host Committee Indianapolis, IN (2010 – 2011)
    Served on the NFL Community Impact Program Committee.
  • Marketing Research Consultant, Lifestyle Family Fitness Greenwood, IN. (2010 – 2011) 
    Provided advice on building brand loyalty in the health club.
  • Marketing Research Consultant, Cardinal Fitness Greenwood, IN (2010 – 2011) 
    Conducted research on building brand loyalty in the health club: 2010-2011.
  • Member, Board of Directors, Fair Chance Co., Indianapolis, IN (2010 – 2011)
  • Associate Instructor, Department of Kinesiology Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (2006 – 2007)
  • Personal Trainer and Consultant, Gold’s Gym Inc. Columbia, SC (2004 – 2006)
  • Strength and Conditioning Coach, Orangeburg Wilkerson High School Orangeburg, SC (2005 – 2006)
  • Research Associate (Exercise Science), South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC (2005 – 2006)
  • Marketing Intern, Athletic Department, South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC (2004 – 2005)
  • Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach, South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC (2003 – 2004)
Research Interests

My primary area of scholarly expertise is in the area of brand management in fitness, sport and public health. To this end, my research examines how fitness, sport, and public health organizations build, manage, and communicate their brands and the effects thereof.

Awards & Recognitions
  • 2018 Best Student Paper Award (Faculty Advisor) at the Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas
  • 2017 South Carolina State University Health and Physical Education Hall of Fame Inductee. Orangeburg, South Carolina.
  • 2015 Highly Commended Research Paper Award at the Emerald Literati Awards for Excellence for paper published in Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal
  • 2015 American Council on Exercise Distinguished Service Award
  • 2015 Best Student Paper Award (Faculty Advisor) at the Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas
Selected Publications
Selected Research Publications

[*Denotes graduate student co-author]
[** Denotes publication resulting from grant data]
[Award Denotes publication receiving an international or national award]

Brown, K., & Williams, A. (in press). Out of the box: A critical race theory perspective on pay for play. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport.

Vooris, R., Clavio, G, Williams, A., & Witkemper, C. (in press). Development of a sport Twitter utilization scale. Journal of Contemporary Athletics.

Blaszka M., Walsh, P., Clavio, G., & Williams, A. (2017). A new approach: Measuring athlete brand personality on twitter. Global Sport Business Journal, 5(2) 1-18.

Wright, B., Williams, A., & Byon, K. (2017). Brand marketing via Facebook: An investigation of the marketing mix, consumer-based brand equity, and purchase intention in the fitness industry. Marketing Management Journal, 27(2) 131-142.

Walsh, P., & Williams, A. (2017). To extend or not extend a human brand: An analysis of perceived fit and attitudes towards athlete brand extensions. Journal of Sport Management, 31(1), 44-60.

Williams, A., *Wright, B., & *Blaszka, M. (2017). The biggest tweeter: Assessing brand loyalty for a celebrity trainer’s twitter followers. International Journal of Sports Management, 18(1), 141-160.

*Rhenwrick, I., & Williams, A. (2016). Examining brand equity in recreational sports: A consumer-based perspective. Journal of Recreational Sports, 40(2), 120-132.

Agyemang, K., & Williams, A. (2016). Managing celebrity via impression management on social network sites (SNSs): An exploratory study of NBA celebrities. Sport Business Management: An International Journal, 6(4), 440-459.  

*Lee, M., Kim, D., Williams, A., & Pedersen, P. (2016). Investigating the role of sports commentary: An analysis of media-consumption behavior and programmatic quality and satisfaction. Journal of Sport Media. 11(1), 145-167.

Martin, T.M., Suh, Y., Williams, A., Locey, J., Ramirez, J., & Alea, M. (2016). Comparative analysis of female and male coverage on ESPN’s SportsCenter. Global Sport Business Journal. 4(1), 14-22.

Williams, A. & *Wright, B. (2016). Strategic fitness communication: Examining social media usage in the fitness sector of the sport industry. International Journal of Sport Management. 17(2), 1-18.

Williams, A., Kim, D., Agyemang, K., & Martin, T. (2015). All brands are not created equal: Understanding the role of athletes in sport brand architecture. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 7(3). 75-86.

Kristiansen, E., & Williams, A. (2015). Communicating the athlete as a brand: An examination of LPGA star Suzann Pettersen. International Journal of Sport Communication. 8(3), 371-388.

Williams, A., Martin, T., & *Allen, R. (2015). Communicating through fitness: An examination of the use of athletes to communicate fitness in print media. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Communication. 10(4), 10-19.

Williams, A., *Kim, D., Walsh, P., & *Choi, W. (2015). What children love about athletes: An assessment of athlete brand associations among youth consumers. Global Sport Business Journal. 3(1), 63-77.

Walsh, P., Williams, A., *Kim, D., & *Choi, W. (2015). What a team brand means to youth: An examination of team brand associations held by youth fans. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation, and Tourism.19(c). http://www.ijsmart.eu/Contents.aspx?Y=2015&V=19&Is=c

Williams, A., Walsh, P., & *Rhenwrick, I. (2015). A conceptual framework for assessing brand equity in professional athletes. International Journal of Sport Management.16(1), 77-97.

Williams, A., *Rhenwrick, I., Agyemang, K., & *Pantaleoni, A. (2015). An exploratory study of women club members’ experiences with an NFL franchise brand extension. Sport, Business, Management: An International Journal. 5(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SBM-10-2012-0045 

Agyemang, K., Williams, A., & *Kim, D. (2014). “Scandalous!”: Reputation, impression management, and employee assistance programs in the NBA. Sport Management Review. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.11.003

*Martin, T., & Williams, A., Whisenant, W., & Dees, W. (2014). Mixed martial arts (MMA) and the media: Using the content analytic method to examine the print communication coverage devoted to an emerging sport. Public Organization Review. DOI: 10.1007/s11115-014-0283-x

**Williams, A., *Wright, B., & Williams, C. (2014). Juxtaposing sport and public health: The case of Fit University, Inc., Sport Management International Journal Choregia, 10(1), 57-70.

**Williams, A., & *Kim, D. (2014). Role of self-efficacy in youth exercise commitment and participation. The Sport Management International Journal, 10(1), 30-43.

AwardWalsh, P., *Rhenwrick, I., Williams, A, & *Waldburger, A. (2014). Brand extension or team licensed product? An examination of consumer awareness of two distinct brand strategies. Sport, Business, Management: An International Journal, 4(2)

Williams, A., *Kim, D., & *Pantaleoni, A. (2014). Examining sport advertisements: The effect of cause-related marketing (CRM) messages and endorsements. Global Sport Business Journal, 2(1), 1-21.

Williams, A., *Rhenwrick, I., *Wright, B., *Choi, W., *Kim, D., & Vickey, T. (2014). Building viable fitness brands: Importance of brand communication strategies in attracting potential health club members. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation, and Tourism, 14, 49-68. http://dx.doi.org/DOI: 10.5199/ijsmart-1791-874X-15d

Vickey, T., Breslin, J., & Williams, A. (2013). Fitness—there’s an app for that. The International Journal of Sport and Society, 3(4), 109-122.

Agyemang, K., & Williams, A. (2013). Creating revenue via organizational ‘brandpression’ management (OBpM): A marriage of brand management and impression management in professional sport. International Journal of Revenue Management, 7(2), 171-181.

Walsh, P., *Zimmerman, M., Clavio, G., & Williams, A. (2013). Comparing brand awareness levels of in-game advertising in sport video games featuring visual and verbal cues. Communication & Sport Journal.

Williams, C., & Williams, A. (2013). Hitting calories out of the ballpark: An examination of the FDA’s new menu labeling laws and their impact on sport spectatorship. Loyola Consumer Law Review, 25(2/3) 248-265.

Williams, A., Pedersen, P.M., & Walsh, P. (2012). Brand associations in the fitness segment of the sport industry in the United States: Extending spectator sport branding conceptualizations to participatory sport.  International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, (October), 34-50.

Williams, A., & Pedersen, P. (2012). Investigating service quality and exercise commitment as antecedents in the sport industry: An examination of the role that direct experiences have on the development of brand associations. International Journal of Sport Management, 13(1), 104-114.

Armbruster, C., Marquette, D.,&  Williams, A. (2011). Educators and fitness equipment manufacturers collaborating for the benefit of the end user. American College of Sport Medicine Health and Fitness Journal, 14(4), 18-23.

Selected Grants

Byon, K., & Williams, A. (2016). $51,634 grant from Shanghai International Studies University. “Development of Global Training Program: International Study and Training Educational Program (iSTEP) Program.”

Byon, K., & Williams, A. (2015). $62,502 grant from Shanghai International Studies University. “Development of Global Training Program: International Study and Training Educational Program (iSTEP) Program.”

Williams, A., & Herbenick, D. (2013). $30,000 grant from the Dean’s Office of the School of Public Health Ingenuity Grant: “Sport for Social Change: A Public Health Initiative.”

Williams, A. (2012). $2,500 grant from the Dean’s Office of the School of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Community-Based Research Partnerships Grant: “Fit University: Adolescent Healthy Lifestyle Initiative.”

Williams, A. (2012). $9,250 grant from The Ronald McDonald House of Charities for the Fit University Healthy Lifestyle Program.

 Williams, A., Herbenick, D., & Garcia, J. (2012). $3,000 grant from the Dean’s consumption. Sport Marketing Association XIV Annual Conference. Indianapolis, IN.

*Wright, B., & Williams, A. (May, 2016). Brand communication via Facebook: The marketing mix, brand equity, and purchase intention. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Orlando, FL.

*Park, B., & Williams, A. (February, 2016). Sonic branding in participatory sport: How motivational music influences participants’ affective responses, attitudes, and loyalty towards collegiate fitness brands. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Walsh, P., & Williams, A. (October, 2015). Examining perceived fit and attitudes towards athlete brand extensions. Sport Marketing Association XlII Annual Conference. Atlanta, GA.

Brown, K., & Williams, A. (September, 2015). How race of black athletes is perceived: Should elite black male collegiate athletes be paid. 4th Global Conference of the Sport Project: Probing the Boundaries: Space, Place and Sport. Oxford University (Mansfield College), UK.

*Pantaleoni, A., *Wright, B., Williams, A., & Clavio, G. (February, 2015). Framing the Tony Stewart incident in newspapers and social media. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Award*Wright, B., *Vooris, R., Clavio, G., & Williams, A. (February, 2015). The utilization of social networking sites by professional sports teams: Prevalence of relationship marketing. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Agyemang, K., & Williams, A. (October, 2014). A marriage between sport celebrities and the health food industry. Sport Marketing Association XlI Annual Conference. Philadelphia, PA.

Williams, A. (2012). $9,250 grant from The Ronald McDonald House of Charities for the Fit University Healthy Lifestyle Program.

Williams, A., Herbenick, D., & Garcia, J. (2012). $3,000 grant from the Dean’s Office of the School of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance for the completion of the research project: “An Exploratory Study of the Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Relationships among College Athletes.”

Selected Refereed Presentations, Proceedings & Abstracts

[*Denotes doctoral student co-author}l
[†Denotes presentations resulting in research publication or submission]
[Award Denotes presentation receiving an international or national award]

Kim, K., Byon, K., Wooyeol, B., & Williams, A. (2018). A conceptual model examining antecedents and consequences of consumer-to-consumer interaction in spectator sport. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Zhang, J., Byon, K., & Williams, A. (2018). Conceptual model examining the effects of event image, destination image, and their interaction on sport tourist loyalty formation. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

*Kim, D., Williams, A., Lee, W., Lim, S., Slana, R., & Gerdes, D. (November, 2016). Sport fan motivation and involvement: A stage-based approach. Sport Marketing Association XlV Annual Conference. Indianapolis, IN.

*Park, B., Williams, A., & *Webster, N. (November, 2016). The influence of self-selected music in the fitness industry: An examination of motivational music on sport participants’ re-patronage behavior. Sport Marketing Association XlV Annual Conference. Indianapolis, IN.

Williams, A., Walsh, P., & *Webster, N. (November, 2016). If you build it, will they buy it? Examining the factors that lead to purchase for athlete brand extensions. Sport Marketing Association XlV Annual Conference. Indianapolis, IN.

*Vooris, R., Clavio, G., Pedersen, P.M., Williams, A., & Witkemper, C. (November, 2016). Development of a motivational scale for sport Twitter consumption. Sport Marketing Association XIV Annual Conference. Indianapolis, IN.

*Wright, B., & Williams, A. (May, 2016). Brand communication via Facebook: The marketing mix, brand equity, and purchase intention. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Orlando, FL.

*Park, B., & Williams, A. (February, 2016). Sonic branding in participatory sport: How motivational music influences participants’ affective responses, attitudes, and loyalty towards collegiate fitness brands. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Walsh, P., & Williams, A. (October, 2015). Examining perceived fit and attitudes towards athlete brand extensions. Sport Marketing Association XlII Annual Conference. Atlanta, GA.

Brown, K., & Williams, A. (September, 2015). How race of black athletes is perceived: Should elite black male collegiate athletes be paid. 4th Global Conference of the Sport Project: Probing the Boundaries: Space, Place and Sport. Oxford University (Mansfield College), UK.

*Pantaleoni, A., *Wright, B., Williams, A., & Clavio, G. (February, 2015). Framing the Tony Stewart incident in newspapers and social media. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Award*Wright, B., *Vooris, R., Clavio, G., & Williams, A. (February, 2015). The utilization of social networking sites by professional sports teams: Prevalence of relationship marketing. Global Sport Business Association Conference. Nassau, Bahamas.

Agyemang, K., & Williams, A. (October, 2014). A marriage between sport celebrities and the health food industry. Sport Marketing Association XlI Annual Conference. Philadelphia, PA.

Williams, A., & Martin, T. (July, 2014). Communicating fitness through sport: An examination of the use of athletes to communicate fitness in print media. Fifth International Conference on Sport and Society. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Williams, A., & Williams, C. (July, 2014). Hitting calories out of the ballpark: An examination of the FDA’s new menu labeling laws and their impact on sport spectatorship. Fifth International Conference on Sport and Society. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

*Choi, W., *Kim, D., & Williams, A. (May, 2014). Identifying segments of Korean fitness club members through brand associations. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

*Kim, D., *Choi, W., & Williams, A. (May, 2014). What children love about athletes: An assessment of athlete brand associations in youth sport consumers. 29th Annual North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

Agyemang, K., & Williams, A. (May, 2014). Managing brand image via Twitter: A study of professional athletes’ impression management (IM) behavior. 29th Annual North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

*Wright, B., Clavio, G., & Williams, A. (May, 2014). Fitness communication: An examination of fitness messages on Twitter. 29th Annual North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

Williams, A., & Agyemang, A. (May, 2014). Applying sport brand equity to college athletes. 29th Annual North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

Williams, A., & Gladden, J. (October, 2013). The sport of fitness has arrived: Conceptualizing fitness marketing. Sport Marketing Association Xl Annual Conference. Albuquerque, NM.

Hwang, H., Lim, C., Williams, A., Choi, W., & Walsh, P. (October, 2013). A conceptual modeling of sport-related smartphone applications. Sport Marketing Association Xl Annual Conference. Albuquerque, NM.

*Wright, B., *Choi, W., *Kim, D., *Rhenwrick, I., & Williams, A. (October, 2013).  Building viable fitness brands: Importance of brand communication strategies. Sport Marketing Association Xl Annual Conference. Albuquerque, NM.

*Lee, M., Lim, C., & Williams, A. (September, 2013). Framing and priming effect of commentary on audience perception: The moderating role of sport nationalism. (Re)-Discovering Sport in Contemporary Korea: Guts, Glory and Geurimja. Ann-Arbor, MI. 

*Kim, D., *Choi, W., & Williams, A. (May, 2013). The role of endorser in fitness advertising: Examining the effect of fit between endorser and cause on consumer response. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Austin, TX.

*Choi, W., *Wright, B., *Kim, D., & Williams, A. (May, 2013). A cultural examination of exercise commitment and brand equity in U.S. and South Korean fitness clubs. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Austin, TX.

Walsh, P., Williams, A., *Kim, D., & *Choi, W. (October, 2012). Examining team brand associations held by youth fans. 10th Annual Conference of the Sport Marketing Association. Orlando, FL.

Williams, A., *Blaszka, M., & Walsh, P. (September, 2012). An exploratory study on the effects of health and fitness celebrity Twitter usage on consumer attitudinal and behavior loyalty. Medicine 2.0 Conference at Harvard Medical School. Boston, MA.

Williams, A., Walsh, P., & *Rhenwrick, I. (May, 2012). A conceptual framework for assessing brand equity in professional athletes. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Seattle, WA.

*Martin, T., Pedersen, P., & Williams, A. (May, 2012). Mixed martial arts (MMA) and the media: Using the content analytic method to examine the print communication coverage devoted to an emerging sport. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Seattle, WA.

*Blaszka, M.,*Pantaleoni, A., *Rhenwrick, I., Clavio, G., & Williams, A. (May, 2012). New media management: Supervised social media versus unsupervised social media. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Seattle, WA.

Williams, A., *Choi, W., &*Kim, D. (November, 2011). Exploring core product factors through the analysis of Taekwondo match pattern attacks. Sport Entertainment & Venues Tomorrow Conference. Columbia, SC.

Williams, A.,* Kim, D., & *Rhenwrick, I. (November, 2011). Branding the sport city: Case study of Indianapolis. Sport Entertainment & Venues Tomorrow Conference. Columbia, SC.

*Rhenwrick, I., *Waldburger, A., Walsh, P., & Williams, A. (October, 2011). Consumer knowledge of brand extensions versus team licensed. 9th Annual Conference of the Sport Marketing Association. Houston, TX.

Williams, A., *Choi, W.,*Kim, D, & Pedersen, P. (October, 2011). Building brand associations: Examining fitness club antecedents. 9th Annual Conference of the Sport Marketing Association. Houston, TX.

*Kim, H., Williams, A., *Kim, D., *Choi, W., & Lim, C. (September, 2011). MLB rivalry typology. 19th EASM Conference. Madrid, Spain.

Walsh, P., Williams, A., Lim, C., & *Chung, J. (September, 2011). Development of a conceptual team brand equity model for the youth consumer. 19th EASM Conference. Madrid, Spain.

Williams, A., & Pedersen, P. (June, 2011). Building brand loyalty in the fitness industry. 7th Annual International Conference on Kinesiology and Exercise Sciences. Athens, Greece.

Clavio, G., Walsh, P., Williams, A., Cianfrone, B., & Kwak, D. (October, 2010). Leveling up: A sport video game research roundtable. Sport Marketing Association Annual Conference. New Orleans, LA.

Williams, A. (May, 2009). If it’s in the game, it’s in the game: Using student athletes in officially licensed video games. North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Conference. Columbia, SC.

Martin, T., & Williams, A. (April, 2008). The influence of NCAA men's basketball final four appearances on application and enrollment rates. College Sport Research Institute Scholarly Conference on College Sport. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis.

Williams, A., & Rodenberg, R. (April, 2008). College basketball's virtual three point play: Officially licensed video games, NCAA rules, and student- athlete's statutory and common law right of publicity. College Sport Research Institute Scholarly Conference on College Sport. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis.

Doctoral Committees (Chair):
  • Isabel Rhenwrick, PhD (2014) - Placement: University of Indianapolis
  • Dae Yeon Kim, PhD (2015) -  Placement: University of Central Missouri
  • Benjamin Wright, PhD (2015) -  Placement: American University
  • Wanyong Choi, PhD (2016) -  Placement: Marshall University
  • Byungik Park (in progress)
  • Sungwook Son (in progress)
  • Jin Park (in progress)
  • Julius Hanks (in progress)
Doctoral Committees (Member):
  • Chris Reynolds (2011) -  Placement: Bradley University
  • Tywan Martin (2011) -  Placement: University of Miami
  • Cara Wright (2011) -  Placement: Alabama A&M
  • Jinwook Chung (2012) -  Placement: Winthrop University
  • Chad Witkemper (2012) -  Placement: Indiana State University
  • Lauren Burch (2012) -  Placement: Indiana University – Columbus
  • Matt Zimmerman (2014) -  Placement: Mississippi State University
  • Sang Keon Yoo (2014) -  Placement: Sangmyung University
  • Jacquelyn Lee (2014)
  • Mathew Blaszka (2014) - Placement: Indiana State University
  • Ryan Vooris (2015) - Placement: SUNY Cortland
  • Minkyo Lee (2016)
  • Ju Young Lee (2017)
  • Chase Smith (2017) - Placement: University of Southern Indiana
  • Juha Yoon (2017)
  •  Hansol Hwang (2017)
  •  Charles Jones (2017)
  •  William Jang (in progress)
  •  Cecilia Zhang (in progress)
  •  Anthony Kim (in progress)
  •  David Lovell (in progress)
  •  Katie Brophy Miles (in progress)
  •  Adia Waldburger (in progress)
  •  Johnathan Benedek (in progress)